Our Lab’s Publications


(+HKU Student Author)

Identifying Chinese Dyslexia: Machine Learning and Others

1. +Lee, S. M. K., +Liu, H. W., & Tong, S. X. (2022). Identifying Chinese children with dyslexia using machine learning with character dictation. Scientific Studies of Reading, 27(1), 82-100. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2022.2088373

2. +Lam, J. H.-Y. & Tong, X. (2021). Drawing a new picture: Children with developmental dyslexia exhibit superior nonverbal creativity. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 116, 104036. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2021.104036

3. Tong, X., Tong, X. [Xiuli], & +Yiu, F. K. (2017). Beyond auditory sensory processing deficits: Lexical tone perception deficits in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 51(3), 293-301. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219417712018

Heterogeneity in Autism

1. +Lee, H. K., +Chan, W. S. & Tong, X-L. (2022). The heterogeneity and interrelationships among theory of mind, executive function, and reading comprehension deficits in Hong Kong Chinese children with autism. Reading and Writing. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-022-10298-y

2. Tong, X., Wong, R. W-Y., Kwan, J. Y-K., & Arciuli, J. (2019). Theory of mind as a mediator of reading comprehension differences between Chinese school-age children with autism and typically developing peers. Scientific Studies of Reading, 24(4), 292-306. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2019.1666133

3. Zhao, J., Chen, S., Tong, X., & Yi, L. (2019). Advantage in character recognition among Chinese preschool children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 49(2), 4929-4940. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-019-04202-x

Statistical Learning in Dyslexia: Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms  

1. +Lee, S. M-K., Law, N., S-H., & Tong, S. (accepted Feb 28). Unravelling temporal dynamics of multidimensional statistical learning in implicit and explicit systems: An X-way hypothesis. Cognitive Science.

2. +Zhang, P., Chen, H., & Tong, X. (2023). Cue predictiveness and uncertainty determine cue representation during visual statistical learning. Learning & Memory. 21. https://www.learnmem.org/cgi/doi/10.1101/lm.053777.123

3. Tong, S.[Xiuli], Duan, R., Shen, W., Yu, Y., & Tong, X. (2022). Multiple mechanisms regulate statistical learning of orthographic regularities in school-age children: Neurophysiological evidence. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience.

4. +Lee, M-K. S.,+Cui, Y., & Tong, X., (2022). Toward a model of statistical learning and reading: Evidence from a meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 92(4), 651-691. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543211073188

5. +Lee, S. M-K. & Tong, X. (2020). Spelling in developmental dyslexia in Chinese: Evidence of deficits in statistical learning and over-reliance on phonology. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 37(7-8), 494-510. https://doi.org/10.1080/02643294.2020.1765754

6. Tong, X., Wang, Y., & Tong, S.[Xiuli] (2020a). Neurocognitive correlates of statistical learning of orthographic-semantic connections in Chinese adult learners. Neuroscience Bulletin, 38(8), 895-906. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12264-020-00500-y

7. Tong, X., Wang, Y., & Tong, S.[Xiuli] (2020b). The neural signature of statistical learning of orthography. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 14(26).https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.00026

8. Tong, X., +Zhang, P., & +He, X. (2020). Statistical learning of orthographic regularities in Chinese children with and without dyslexia. Child Development, 91 (6), 1953-1969. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13384

9. Tong, X., Leung, +W. W-S., & Tong, X.[Xiuli] (2019). Visual statistical learning and orthographic awareness in Chinese children with and without developmental dyslexia. Research in Developmental Disabilities, Sept 92: 103443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2019.103443

10. +He, X., & Tong, X. (2017). Statistical learning as a key to cracking Chinese orthographic codes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 21(1), 60-75. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2016.1243541

11. +He, X., & Tong, X. (2017). Quantity matters: Children with dyslexia are impaired in a small, but not large, number of exposures during implicit repeated sequence learning. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 26(4), 1080-1091. https://doi.org/10.1044/2017_AJSLP-15-0190

12. Tong, X., & McBride, C. (2014). Chinese children’s statistical learning of orthographic regularities: Positional constraints and character structure. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18(4), 291-308. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2014.884098

Bilingual Reading Comprehension Development and Difficulties: Speech Prosody and Other Oral Language Skills

Prosody and Reading Comprehension Development

1. Tong, S., +Tsui, K-Y., Law, N. S-H.,+Fung, L., S-H, Chiu, M., & Cain, K. (2023). The role of prosody in Chinese-English reading comprehension. Learning & Instruction. 89. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0959475223001159

2. Tong, S. X., +Lentejas, K. G., +Deng, Q., +An, N, & Cui, Y. (2023). How prosodic sensitivity contributes to reading comprehension: a meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review. 35(78). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-023-09792-8

3. Tong, X., Deng, Q., & Tong, S.[Xiuli] (2023). Speech prosody and reading comprehension in Chinese-English bilingual children: The mediating role of syntactic awareness. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 66(7), 2362-2375. 10.1044/2023_JSLHR-22-00026.

4. +Deng, Q., Choi, W., & Tong, X. (2019). Bidirectional cross-linguistic association of phonological skills and reading comprehension: Evidence from Hong Kong Chinese-English bilingual readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 52(4), 299-311. http://doi.org/10.1177/0022219419842914

5. +Choi, W. T.-M., Tong, X., & Cain, K. (2016). Lexical prosody beyond first-language boundary: Chinese lexical tone sensitivity predicts English reading comprehension. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 148, 70-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2016.04.002

Prosody and Reading Comprehension Difficulties: Neurotypical and Deaf and Hard-of Hearing Children

1. +Deng, Q., & Tong, S. X.-L. (2021). Suprasegmental but not segmental phonological awareness matters in understanding bilingual reading comprehension difficulties in Chinese and English: A 3-year longitudinal study. Annals of Dyslexia, 71(1), 150-169. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-021-00213-5

2. Deng, Q. & Tong, X. (2021). Understanding text reading comprehension in Chinese students who are d/deaf and hard of hearing: The roles of segmental phonological awareness and suprasegmental lexical tone awareness. American Annals of the Deaf, 166(4), 462-477.

3. +Deng, Q., & Tong, S. X-L. (2021). Linguistic but not cognitive weaknesses in deaf or hard-of-hearing poor comprehenders. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 26(3), 351-362. hattps://10.1093/deafed/enab006

4. Choi, W., Tong, X., & Deacon, H. (2017). Double dissociations in reading comprehension difficulties among Chinese-English bilinguals and their association with tone awareness. Journal of Research in Reading, 40(2), 184-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9817.12077

5. Tong, X., & Deacon, S. H. (2017). Understanding poor comprehenders in different orthographies: Universal versus language-specific skills. Journal of Research in Reading, 40(2), 119-124. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9817.12112

Metalinguistic and Other Oral Language Skills and Bilingual Reading Comprehension Development

1. Tong, X., Chiu, M. M., & Tong, S.[Xiuli] (2023). Synergetic effects of phonological awareness, vocabulary and word reading on reading comprehension in bilingual children: A 3-year study. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 73.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2023.102153

2. Tong, X. & Tong, S.[Xiuli] (2022). How vocabulary breadth and depth influence bilingual reading comprehension: Direct and indirect pathways. Learning and Individual Differences, 59.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2022.102227

3. Tong, X., Kwan, J. Y-K., Tong, X. (Xiuli), & Deacon, H. (2022). How Chinese-English bilingual fourth graders draw on syntactic awareness in reading comprehension: Within- and cross-language effects. Reading Research Quarterly, 57(2), 409-429. https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.400

4. James, E., Currie, N., Tong, S. X-L., & Cain, K. (2021). The relations between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in beginner readers to young adolescents. Journal of Research in Reading, 44(1), 110-130. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9817.12316

5. +Choi, W., Tong, X., Law, K. K.-S., & Cain, K. (2018). Within- and cross-language contributions of morphological awareness to word reading development in Chinese-English bilingual children. Reading and Writing, 31(8), 1787-1820. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-017-9770-0

6. Tong, X., Tong X. [Xiuli], Shu, H., Chan, S. F., & McBride-Chang, C. (2014). Discourse-level reading comprehension in Chinese children: What is the role of syntactic awareness? Journal of Research in Reading, 37(S1), S48-S70. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9817.12016

7. Tong, X-H., +Deng, Q., & Tong, S. X-L. (2022). Syntactic awareness matters: Uncovering reading comprehension difficulties in Hong Kong Chinese-English bilingual children. Annals of Dyslexia, 72(3), 532-551. https;//10.1007/s11881-022-00268-y

8. Deacon, S. H., Tong, X., & Francis, K. (2017). The relationship of morphological analysis and morphological decoding to reading comprehension. Journal of Research in Reading, 40, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9817.12056

9. Tong, X., Deacon, S. H., Kirby, J., Cain, K., & Parrila, R. (2011). Morphological awareness: A key to understanding poor reading comprehension in English. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(3), 523-534. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023495

10. Tong, X., Deacon, S. H., & Cain, K. (2014). Morphological and syntactic awareness in poor comprehenders: Another piece of the puzzle. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47(1), 22-33. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219413509971

Pitch Perception Across Languages

1. Tong, X., McBride-Chang, C., & Burnham, D. (2014). Cues for lexical tone perception in children: Acoustic correlates and phonetic context effects. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 57(5), 1589-1605. https://doi.org/10.1044/2014_JSLHR-S-13-0145

2. Tong, X., McBride, C., Zhang, J., Chung, K. H., Lee, C.-Y., Shuai, L., & Tong, X. [Xiuli]. (2014). Neural correlates of acoustic cues of English lexical stress in Cantonese-speaking children. Brain and Language, 138, 61-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2014.09.004

3. Tong, X., +Lee, S. M.-K., +Lee, M. M.-L., & Burnham, D. (2015). A tale of two features: Perception of Cantonese lexical tone and English lexical stress in Cantonese-English bilinguals. PLoS ONE, 10(11), e0142896. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142896

4. +Choi, W., Tong, X. [Xiuli], Gu, F., Tong, X., & Wong, L. (2017). On the early neural perceptual integrality of tones and vowels. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 41, 11-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2016.09.003

5. +Choi, W., Tong, X., & Singh, L. (2017). From lexical tone to lexical stress: A cross-language mediation model for Cantonese children learning English as a second language. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(492). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00492

6. Tong, X., +Choi, W., & +Man, Y. Y. (2018). Tone language experience modulates the effect of long-term musical training on musical pitch perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 144(2), 690-697. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.5049365

7. Tong, X. [Xiuli], McBride, C., & Tong, X. (2015). Tune in to the tone: Lexical tone identification is associated with vocabulary and word recognition abilities in young Chinese children. Language and Speech, 58(4), 441-458. https://doi.org/10.1177/0023830914562988

8. Gu, F., Wong, L., Hu, A., Zhang, X., & Tong, X. (2019). A lateral inhibition mechanism explains the dissociation between mismatch negativity and behavioral pitch discrimination. Brain Research, 1720: 146308 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.146308

9. +Choi, W., Tong, X., & Samuel, A. (2019). Better than native: Tone language experience enhances English lexical stress discrimination in Cantonese-English bilingual listeners. Cognition, 189, 188-192. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.04.004

10. +Choi, W., Tong, X., & Deacon, S. H. (2019) From Cantonese lexical tone awareness to second language English vocabulary: Cross-language mediation by segmental phonological awareness. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 62(6), 1875-1889. https://doi.org/10.1044/2019_JSLHR-L-17-0323

Lexical Processing and Chinese Character Acquisition 

1. +Deng, Q., Gu, F., & Tong, S. X.-L. (2020). Lexical processing in sign language: A visual mismatch negativity study. Neuropsychologia, 148: 107629. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2020.107629

2. Hu, A, Gu, F., Wong, L. N., Tong, X., & Zhang, X. (2020). Visual mismatch negativity elicited by semantic violations in visual words. Brain Research, 1746: 147010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2020.147010

3. Tong, X., +Deng, Q., Deacon, S.H., Saint-Aubin, J., & Wang, S. (2020). To see or not to see: The roles of item properties and language knowledge in Chinese missing logographeme effect. Applied Psycholinguistics, 41(5), 1113-1139. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0142716420000466

4. Tong, X., Shen, W., Li, Z., Xu, M., Pan, L., & Tong, X. [Xiuli] (2019). Phonological, not semantic, activation dominates Chinese character recognition: Evidence from a visual world eye-tracking study. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 73(4), 617-628. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747021819887956

5. +Tsui, R. K.-Y., Tong, X., & Chan, S.-K. (2019). Impact of language dominance on phonetic transfer in Cantonese-English bilingual language-switching. Applied Psycholinguistics, 40(1), 29-58. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716418000449

6. Hulme, C., Zhou, L., Tong, X., Lervag, A., & Burgoyne, K. (2019). Learning to read in Chinese: Evidence for reciprocal relationships between word reading and oral language skills. Developmental Science, 22(1): e12745. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12745

7. Tong, X., & McBride, C. (2018). Toward a graded psycholexical space mapping model: Sublexical and lexical representations in Chinese character reading development. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 51(5), 482-489. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219417718199

8. Tong, X., Tong, X [Xiuli], & McBride, C. (2017). Unpacking the relation between morphological awareness and Chinese word reading: Levels of morphological awareness and vocabulary. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 48, 167-178. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.07.003

9. Tong, X., +He, X., & Deacon, H. (2017). Tone matters for Cantonese-English bilingual children’s English word reading development: A unified model of phonological transfer. Memory & Cognition, 45(2), 320-333. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-016-0657-0

10. Tong, X., Tong, X. [Xiuli], & McBride, C. (2017). Radical sensitivity is the key to understanding Chinese character acquisition in children. Reading and Writing, 30(6), 1251-1265. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-017-9722-8

11. Tong, X., Kwan, J. L.-Y., +Wong, D. W.-M., +Lee, S. M.-K., & +Yip, J. H.-Y. (2016). Toward a dynamic interactive model of non-native Chinese character processing. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(5), 680-693. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000083

12. Tong, X. [Xiuli], Tong, X., & McBride-Chang, C. (2015). A tale of two writing systems: Double dissociation and metalinguistic transfer between Chinese and English word reading among Hong Kong children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 48(2), 130-145. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219413492854

13. Tong, X., & +Yip, J. H.-Y. (2015). Cracking the Chinese character: Radical sensitivity in learners of Chinese as a foreign language and its relationship to Chinese word reading. Reading and Writing, 28(2), 159-181.http://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-014-9519-y

14. Zhang, J., McBride-Chang, C., Tong, X., Wong, A., Shu, H., & Fong, Y.-C. (2012). Reading with meaning: The contributions of meaning-related variables at the word and subword levels to early Chinese reading comprehension. Reading and Writing, 25(9), 2183-2203. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-011-9353-4

15. Tong, X., McBride-Chang, C., Wong, A. M.-Y., Shu, H., Reistma, P., & Rispens, J. (2011). Longitudinal predictors of very early Chinese literacy acquisition. Journal of Research in Reading, 34(3), 315-332. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2009.01426.x

16. Tong, X., Ting, K.-T., & McBride-Chang. (2011). Shyness and Chinese and English vocabulary skills in Hong Kong kindergartners. Early Education and Development, 22(1), 29-52. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409280903507253

17. Tong, X., & McBride-Chang, C. (2010). Developmental models of learning to read Chinese words. Developmental Psychology, 46(6), 1662-1676. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0020611

18. Tong, X., & McBride-Chang, C. (2010). Chinese-English biscriptal reading: Cognitive component skills across orthographies. Reading and Writing, 23(3), 293-310. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-009-9211-9

19. Tong, X., McBride-Chang, C., Shu, H., & Wong, A. M.-Y. (2009). Morphological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and spelling errors: Keys to understanding early Chinese literacy acquisition. Scientific Studies of Reading, 13(5), 426-452. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888430903162910

20. McBride-Chang, C., Tong, X., Shu, H., Wong, A. M.-Y., Leung, K., & Tardif, T. (2008). Syllable, phoneme, and tone: Psycholinguistic units in early Chinese and English word recognition. Scientific Studies of Reading, 12(2), 171-194. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888430801917290

Telepractice and Clinical Tools

1. +Lentejas, K-G., +Lam, J. H-Y., & Tong, S. X-L. (2022). Professional training and therapeutic resources needed for the adoption of telepractice in the Philippines. Communication Disorders Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1177/15257401221119969

2. +Lam, J. H. Y., Chiu, M. M., +Lee, S. M. K., & Tong, X-L. (2022). Psychosocial factors, but not professional practice skills, linked to self-perceived effectiveness of telepractice in school-based speech and language therapists during COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12773

3. +Lam, J. H-Y., & Tong, X-L. (2022). Development and validation of the online learning process questionnaire (OLPQ) at home for primary-school children and their caregivers. Learning Environments Research.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10984-022-09443-9

4. +Lam, J. H-Y., & Tong, X-L. (2022). Development and validation of the online learning attitude questionnaire (OLAQ) among primary school children and caregivers. Interactive Learning Environments. https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/nile20

5. +Lam, J. H-Y., +Lee, S. M-K, & Tong, X-L. (2021). Parents’ and students’ perceptions of telepractice services for speech-language therapy during the Covid-19 pandemic: Survey study. JMIR Pediatrics and Parenting, 4(1): e25675. https://pediatrics.jmir.org/2021/1/e25675/


1. Tong, X., +Vasudevamurthy, A., +Lentejas, K., +Zhang, P., & +An, N. (2023). How brain-based research can rewrite education for bi/multilingual children with special educational needs in Hong Kong, India, and the Philippines. In W. O.Lee, P. Brown, A, Green, & A.L. Goodwin (Ed.). International Handbook on Education Development in Asia-Pacific. Springer. https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-981-16-2327-1_116-1

2. Deacon, S. H., Tong, X., & Mimeau, C. (2016). Morphological and semantic processing in developmental dyslexia: A theoretical and empirical review. In L. Verhoeven, C. Perfetti, K. Pugh, & (Eds.), Developmental dyslexia across languages and writing systems (pp. 327-349). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108553377.015

3. Tong, X., Lam, S., & McBride-Chang, C. (2015). Chinese literacy acquisition: A multidimensional puzzle. In W. S-Y. Wang & C. McBride-Chang (Eds.), The international encyclopedia of the social & behavioural science. Amsterdam: Elsevier Ltd.

4. Deacon, S. H., & Tong, X.,(2013). Crianças com dificuldades [Unexpected poor comprehenders: Children with an often unrecognized and profoundly debilitating reading difficulty]. In M. R. Maluf & C. Cardoso-Martins (Eds.), Alfabetização no século XXI: Como se aprende a ler e a escrever [Literacy in the XXI Century:  How to learn to read and write] (pp. 155-170). PENSO

5. Cheung, H., McBride-Chang, C., & Tong, X. (2011). Learning a non-alphabetic script and its impact on later development of English as an L2. In A. Durgunoglu & M. Gerber (Eds.), Language and literacy development of language learners (pp. 168-187). New York: Guilford.

6. McBride-Chang, C., Chow, Y.-Y., & Tong, X. (2010). Early literacy at home: General environmental factors and specific parent input. In D. Aram & O. Korat (Eds.), Literacy development and enhancement across orthographies and cultures (pp. 97-127). New York: Springer.

7. Tong, X., Liu, D., & McBride-Chang, C. (2009). Metalinguistic and sub-character skills in Chinese literacy acquisition. In C. Wood & V. Connelly (Eds.), Contemporary perspectives on reading and spelling (pp. 202-217). London: Routledge.